BI255 Human Physiology                                                                                                    Name________________________________

Exam 1

On the computer sheet, fill in the name box, last name first, and darken the corresponding circle under each letter of your name. Then for questions 1 - 56, darken in the circle on the computer sheet coresponding to the correct answer. Answer questions 57 - 72 directly on this test paper.

1. The most fundamental living unit of the body is the
a. nucleus
b. cell
c. tissue
d. organ system

2. A homeostatic mechanism
a. usually involves negative feedback
b. usually involves positive feedback
c. attempts to maintain a constant internal environment
d. a and c
e. b and c

3. Negative feedback acts to minimize the difference between the current level of a variable and its setpoint.
a. true b. false

4. Some gates in the cell membrane of neurons open in response to voltage changes. When these gates are open, ions enter the neuron causing further depolarization. This is an example of
a. negative feedback b. positive feedback

5. A hormone called parathyroid hormone acts to raise calcium concentrations in the blood. According to the principles of negative feedback, an effective stimulus for parathyroid secretion would be
a. a fall in blood calcium
b. a rise in blood calcium
c. either a or b

6. Which of the following is NOT true of the epidermis?
a. superficial
b. gives rise to hairs, sebaceous and sweat glands
c. consists of stratified squamous epithelium
d. contains blood vessels

7. Vitamin D is synthesized from cholesterol in the integument upon exposure to light.
a. true b. false

8. Which of the following is NOT true of primary active transport?
a. requires energy
b. moves molecules from low to high concentration
c. can transport only 1 molecule at a time
d. utilizes carrier proteins in the cell membrane

9. Using cytoplasmic extensions of the cell membrane to engulf large particles is known as
a. exocytosis
b. phagocytosis
c. pinocytosis
d. necrosis

10. The lipids primarily responsible for forming the inner and outer layers of the cell membrane are
a. triglycerides
b. phospholipids
c. steroids
d. sphingolipids

11. The stage of mitosis in which chromosomes separate into chromatids and begin moving to opposite poles is
a. anaphase
b. telophase
c. prophase
d. metaphase

12. Every 3 bases along a strand of mRNA forms a codon for one
a. monosaccharide
b. amino acid
c. nucleic acid
d. tRNA

13. The type of bond formed when atoms share electrons equally.
a. ionic
b. polar covalent
c. nonpolar covalent
d. hydrogen

14. Acids
a. have a low pH
b. donate hydrogen electrons
c. do not ionize readily
d. all of the above

15. The level of protein structure resulting when hydrogen bonding between amino acids causes formation of a helix or pleated sheet.
a. primary
b. secondary
c. tertiary
d. quaternary

16. Organelles which are the site of protein synthesis.
a. mitochondria
b. lysosomes
c. rough endoplasmic reticulum
d. smooth endoplasmic reticulum

17. The inside of a resting cell is negative.
a. true b. false

18. Which of the following is true of the distribution of ions across the resting cell membrane?
a. potassium and sodium highest inside, calcium outside
b. potassium highest inside, sodium and chlorine outside
c. calcium and sodium highest inside, potassium outside
d. potassium and chlorine highest inside, sodium outside

19. Depolarization is initiated when an above-threshold stimulus causes sodium channels to open.
a. true b. false

20. The sodium-potassium pump moves 2 sodium ions out of the cell for every 3 potassium ions taken in.
a. true b. false

21. The dendrites and cell bodies of neurons possess voltage-regulated sodium gates which respond to the presence of neurotransmitters on receptors in these parts of the neuron.
a. true b. false

22. Which of the following is NOT true of action potentials?
a. they are produced by opening of voltage-regulated Na+ gates
b. they are an all-or-none phenomenon
c. they are followed by a refractory period
d. the membrane potential temporarily becomes positive during them

23. Action potentials are seen only in nerve and muscle cells.
a. true b. false

24. All neurons have identical thresholds for a particular stimulus.

25. The portion of the neuron with the lowest threshold for initiation of action potentials is the
a. dendrite
b. cell body
c. axon hollock
d. telodendria

26. Repolarization of an axon is produced by
a. inward diffusion of sodium
b. inward active transport of potassium
c. outward diffusion of potassium
d. inward active transport of sodium

27. Saltatory conduction refers to the conduction of action potential in
a. dendrites
b. myelinated neurons
c. unmyelinated neurons
d. an electrical synapse

28. Which neuron would have the fastest velocity of action potential conduction?
a. small diameter, myelinated
b. small diameter, unmyelinated
c. large diameter, myelinated
d. large diameter, unmyelinated

29. Electrical synapses are more common than chemical synapses.
a. true b. false

30. The presynaptic membrane is always the terminal of a neuron.
a. true b. false

31. Acetylcholinesterase is a neurotransmitter.
a. true b. false

32. Binding of norepinephrine to a receptor on the surface of the cell membrane triggers ion channels to open by using an intracellular secondary messenger called
a. synapsin
b. cyclic AMP
c. acetylcholinesterase
d. monoamine oxidase

33. Which of the following is not a monoamine?
a. serotonin
b. dopamine
c. acetylcholine
d. norepinephrine

34. Which of the following is NOT true of postsynaptic potentials?
a. they are produced in dendrites and cell bodies
b. they are produced by chemically-regulated Na+ gates
c. they are all-or-none phenomenon
d. they are not propagated (do not travel)

35. As the strength of a depolarizing stimulus is increased
a. the amplitude of action potentials increases
b. the duration of action potentials increases
c. the speed of action potentials increases
d. the frequency of action potentials increases

36. The neuromodulator which blocks the calcium channels of pain neurons is
a. acetylcholine
b. novocain
c. substance P
d. enkephalin

37. The summation of EPSPs from several presynaptic neurons converging onto one postsynaptic neuron is called
a. temporal summation
b. spatial summation
c. presynaptic inhibition
d. facilitation

38. Afferent neurons always enter the dorsal root of the spinal cord.
a. true b. false

39. Which of the following would be LEAST likely to be found in the gray matter of the spinal cord?
a. cell bodies of neurons
b. dendrites
c. myelinated axons
d. unmyelinated axons

40. Monosynaptic reflex arcs consist of a sensory receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron, and effector.
a. true b. false

41. The formation of long term memory appears to involve more than just facilitation of synapses.
a. true b. false

42. In most people the left motor area of the cerebrum controls muscles on the right side of the body.
a. true b. false

43. In most people the left cerebral hemisphere is responsible for visuospatial ability.
a. true b. false

Use this list of cerebral lobes to answer questions 44 - 48.
a. frontal lobe
b. parietal lobe
c. temporal lobe
d. occipital lobe
e. insula

44. Contains auditory and olfactory areas.

45. Processes visual input.

46. Deep, involved in memory formation.

47. Contains the primary motor area.

48. Contains the general sensory area and taste area.

49. Someone with damage to Broca's area would
a. be unable to speak
b. not comprehend what was heard

c. produce garbled speech
d. all of the above

50. Which of the following is not part of the limbic system?
a. prefrontal area of cerebrum
b. cerebellum
c. thalamus
d. hypothalamus

Use this list to answer questions 51 - 56
a. cerebellum
b. pons varolli
c. medulla oblongota
d. thalamus
e. hypothalamus

51. Responsible for equilibrium, balance and muscle coordination.

52. Contains feeding and satiety center.

53. Produces ADH and oxytocin hormones.

54. Contains only respiratory centers.

55. Relays incoming sensory information to the cerebrum.

56. Contains vasomotor and cardiac centers.


____________________________ 57. Two DIFFERENT things which the integument protects us from.


____________________________ 58. Four functions of proteins found in the plasma membrane of cells.




____________________________ 59. Term for growth of a tissue due to an increase in cell number.

____________________________ 60. Term for when cells are made temporarily more negative internally than usual.

____________________________ 61. One example of how #4 may be accomplished.

What neurotransmitter is used to:

____________________________ 62. slow the heart rate?

____________________________ 63. inhibit contraction of antagonist muscles?

____________________________ 64. cause contraction of skeletal muscle?

____________________________ 65. Ion thought to be involved in facilitation of synapses.

____________________________ 66. Term for a collection of neuron cell bodies outside the CNS.

____________________________ 67. Name for the division of the nervous system which controls smooth and cardiac muscle and glands.

____________________________ 68. Two functions of cerebrospinal fluid.


69. Name 2 ways in which neurotransmitters may be removed from the synaptic cleft.

70. How does an absolute refractory period differ from a relative refractory period? What causes each?

71. Starting with the arrival of action potentials at an axon terminal, describe the steps resulting in neurotransmitter release. Next, suppose the postsynaptic membrane is cardiac muscle. Pick either acetylcholine or norepinephrine and describe the steps by which a postsynaptic potential is created. Is it an EPSP or an IPSP? (10 points)

72. The tetanus toxin prevents the release of gamma amino butyric acid, a neurotransmitter used extensively by the cerebellum. Knowing this, what would be the symptoms of tetanus poisoning and why?

© 2004 by Lee Boyd

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