BI255 Human Physiology                                             Name ____________________________

Exam II - 100 Points

1. Which of these types of skeletal muscle cells contains the least myoglobin?
a. slow twitch fatigue resistant
b. fast twitch fatigable
c. fast twitch fatigue resistant

2. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum
a. manufactures proteins
b. translates proteins
c. aids in lipid synthesis and forms transport vesicles
d. contains hydrolytic enzymes

3. The flattened stacks of membrane-bounded sacs which process, sort, and direct sell products are the
a. Golgi complex
b. rough endoplasmic reticulum
c. peroxisomes
d. mitochondria

4. Secretory vesicles are produced by the
a. Golgi complex
b. rough endoplasmic reticulum
c. peroxisomes
d. mitochondria

5. What organelle is thought to be descended from a symbiotic bacterium that colonized eukaryotic cells?
a. Golgi complex
b. rough endoplasmic reticulum
c. peroxisomes
d. mitochondria

6. Alcohol is detoxified within a cell by the
a. Golgi complex
b. rough endoplasmic reticulum
c. peroxisomes
d. mitochondria

7. The Krebs (citric-acid) cycle takes place within what organelle?
a. Golgi complex
b. rough endoplasmic reticulum
c. peroxisomes
d. mitochondria

8. Which of the following statements about ATP is true?
a. the third phosphate is linked to ADP by a high-energy bond
b. conversion of ATP to ADP + P liberates energy for the cell's use
c. ATP is the universal energy currency of cells
d. all of the above

9. In terms of the number of ATP molecules directly produced, the major energy-yielding process in the cell is
a. glycolysis
b. the Krebs cycle
c. oxidative phosphorylation
d. lipogenesis

10. Which of the following is not produced by aerobic respiration?
a. carbon dioxide
b. oxygen
c. water
d. energy

11. The final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is
a. a base
b. carbon
c. phosphate
d. oxygen

12. Which of the following do not act as carriers of energy for the production of ATP?
a. FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide)
b. GDP (guanine diphosphate)
c. DPGA (diphosphoglyceric acid)
d. NAD (nicotinamide adinine dinucleotide)

13. What compound directly enters the Krebs cycle?
a. pyruvic acid
b. acetyl CoA
c. guanosine triphosphate
d. fumaric acid

14. Neurons carrying information to the central nervous system are called
a. afferent neurons
b. efferent neurons
c. motor neurons
d. a and c

15. The white matter of the brain and spinal cord is composed of
a. unmyelinated axons
b. ganglia
c. nerve cell bodies
d. myelinated axons

16. The area of the cerebral cortex which receives general sensory information is the
a. frontal lobe
b. temporal lobe
c. parietal lobe
d. occipital lobe

17. Which of the following does not occur in the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex?
a. processing of olfactory information
b. processing of auditory information
c. processing of visual information
d. formation of short-term memory

18. Second order sensory neurons synapse with third order sensory neurons in the
a. spinal cord
b. medulla oblongota
c. thalamus
d. cerebral cortex

19. Which of the following is not true of the primary motor area?
a. found in the parietal lobe
b. each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body
c. the body is represented 'upside down'
d. muscles performing complex movements have a larger representation

20. The areas of the brain which control sleep versus wakefulness are referred to as the
a. reticular formation
b. choroid plexus
c. medulla oblongota
d. limbic system

21. Which of the following is not a function of the cerebellum?
a. coordinates body movements
b. maintains muscle tone
c. maintains posture
d. regulates blood vessel diameter

22. If a person has a lesion on the right side of the spinal cord, which of the following is true?
a. pain and temperature sensations will be lost on the left side from regions below the lesion
b. proprioreceptive information will be lost on the left side from regions below the lesion
c. all sensation of pressure and touch will be lost on the left side below the lesion
d. paralysis of the skeletal muscles will occur on both sides of the body below the lesion

23. Sensory information from the 'bitter' tastebuds travels through which cranial nerve?
a. oculomotor
b. facial
c. glossopharyngeal
d. trigeminal

24. Information about the strength of a stimulus is coded by all but which of the following?
a. whether the receptor depolarizes or not
b. number of receptors depolarizing
c. frequency of action potentials sent from the receptor
d. position of the receptor, its adequate stimulus, and its area of representation in the cerebral cortex

25. The receptors for taste are
a. naked sensory nerve endings
b. encapsulated sensory nerve endings
c. modified epithelial cells

26. Which of the following would be the last structure that light would pass through on its way to the retina?
a. vitreous humor
b. aqueous humor
c. lens
d. cornea

27. Glaucoma
a. results from build up of pressure due to accumulation of aqueous humor in the eye
b. occurs when the lens cloud up
c. is the end result of a detached retina
d. is the result of changes in the shape of the eye that make it impossible to produce an image on the retina

28. Which of the following is true of myopia?
a. eye may be too short or the cornea too flat
b. focal point is in front of the retina
c. corrected by convex lens
d. person has difficulty with near vision

29. The loss of lens elasticity as one ages results in
a. glaucoma
b. astigmatism
c. cataracts
d. presbyopia

30. The area of the retina where visual acuity is greatest is the
a. sclera
b. optic disk
c. ciliary body
d. fovea

31. The property of photon motion which imparts the color of light seen is the
a. wavelength
b. wave amplitude
c. wave divergence
d. wave velocity

32. The utricle and the saccule
a. contain otoliths
b. are located in the middle ear
c. provide a sense of linear acceleration
d. a and c

33. The structure of the ear which equalizes pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane is the
a. eustachian tube
b. tensor tympani
c. pinna
d. oval window

34. Which of the following would not cause a conductive hearing loss?
a. loud sounds
b. perforate tympanic membrane
c. fusion of the ossicles
d. inflammation of the middle ear

True and False - Circle either T or F

1. Muscles have an optimal length at which maximal work can be produced.
a. true
b. false

2. In isometric contractions the muscle length changes but the force exerted stays constant.
a. true
b. false

3. The degree of overlap of thick and thin filaments affects the amount of active tension the muscle can develop.
a. true
b. false

4. If a muscle hypertrophies, the muscle cells increase in size.
a. true
b. false

5. Posture muscles would contain lots of slow twitch fatigue-resistant cells.
a. true
b. false

6. Motor neurons enter the spinal cord through the posterior root.
a. true
b. false

7. Ganglia are clusters of neuron cell bodies found inside the central nervous system.
a. true
b. false

8. The peripheral nervous system consists of the spinal cord and the spinal nerves.
a. true
b. false

9. The limbic system is a special set of nerves that control the limbs.
a. true
b. false

10. Electroencephalographs are used to measure the electrical activity of the heart.
a. true
b. false
   
11. The continuous electrical activity characteristic of the current mental state is called evoked activity.
a. true
b. false

12. Dreaming occurs during REM sleep
a. true
b. false

13. Long term memory may involve the synthesis of RNA and proteins.
a. true
b. false

14. If a muscle spindle is stretched, the sensory neuron from that spindle will increase its rate of firing.
a. true
b. false

15. In a stretch reflex the extrafusal fibers of a muscle are stimulated to contract by alpha motor neurons.
a. true
b. false

16. Broca's area in the frontal lobe is involved in language comprehension.
a. true
b. false

17. The cerebellum fine-tunes contractions initiated by the motor cortex of the cerebrum.
a. true
b. false

18. More time is spent in REM sleep than in slow wave sleep.
a. true
b. false

19. The stronger the stimulus, the greater the generator potential built up in the sensory receptor, and the lower the frequency of action potentials traveling down the associated sensory neuron.
a. true
b. false

20. Phasic receptors adapt to a constant stimulus.
a. true
b. false

21. Proprioreceptors are phasic receptors.
a. true
b. false

22. Chemoreceptors transduce light.
a. true
b. false

23. When Golgi tendon organs increase their rate of firing, the alpha motor neuron innervating that muscle depolarizes, resulting in muscle contraction.
a. true
b. false

24. The cornea and choroid layer of the eye are transparent to allow the passage of light.
a. true
b. false

25. When an object is greater than 20 feet from the viewer, light rays from the object are diverging when they enter the eye and the lens must accommodate by becoming more spherical.
a. true
b. false

26. The brain must reverse and invert the image that is generated on the retina in order to interpret what is seen.
a. true
b. false

27. Because the tympanic membrane is so much smaller than the oval window, sound energy becomes concentrated enough to overcome the inertia of the cochlear fluid.
a. true
b. false

28. Ripples in the basilar membrane cause hair cells to jam against the tectorial membrane and bend, creating a generator potential in the hair cell.
a. true
b. false

Miscellaneous

1. Name the cranial nerve that:

a. innervates digestive and respiratory viscera ________________________

b. innervates the olfactory epithelia ________________________

c. innervates the cochlear and vestibular apparatus ________________________

d. innervates the teeth and chewing muscles ________________________

2. The intensity of a sound depends on the ____________________ of the sound waves and is measured in units called ____________________. Pitch depends on the ____________________ of sound waves. High pitched sounds set up a maximal displacement of the basilar membrane near the ____________________ of the cochlea. Pitch is measured in units called ____________________. The ____________________ is a muscle which dampens loud noises by lessening the vibrations of the tympanic membrane.

3. Name 2 functions of the cerebrospinal fluid.


4. Name 4 functions of the hypothalamus.


5. Name 3 centers found in the medulla oblongota:






6. Name 1 function of earwax (cerumen).




7. What is the function of the gamma motor neurons which are associated with muscle spindles? (2 points)



8. Define any 5 of the following with regard to physiology:
a. referred pain


b. adequate stimulus


c. lateral inhibition of sensory receptors


d. delta waves


e. tract


f. baroreceptors



9. Choose either post-tetanic potentiation or presynaptic facilitation and describe how they are thought to function in learning. (4 points)


10. Choose 1 of the following 2 questions to answer (2 points):

a. Sensory hearing losses (resulting from hearing loud noises) typically occur at higher pitches. Why?

b. When males go through puberty, their voice deepens (becomes lower pitched). Explain what must be happening, in terms of their vocal cords.



























11. Draw a picture of a cross-section of the spinal cord, and then draw in neurons to show reciprocal inhibition pathways for an antagonistic pair of muscles. Label your drawing. (5 points)



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